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Mus domesticus

Color: Gray or brown rodents with relatively large ears and small eyes
Size: An adult is about 5 to 7 inches long, including the 3- to 4-inch tail.

House mice live in and around homes, farms, commercial establishments, as well as in open fields and agricultural lands. The onset of cold weather each fall in temperate regions is said to cause mice to move into structures in search of shelter and food.

During its daily activities, a mouse normally travels an area averaging 10 to 30 feet in diameter, seldom traveling further than this to obtain food or water. Mice constantly explore and learn about their environment, memorizing the locations of pathways, obstacles, food and water, shelter and other elements in their domain. They quickly detect new objects in their environment, but they do not fear novel objects as do rats. This behavior should be remembered if faced with a large population of mice in a residential, industrial or agricultural setting. Mice have keen senses of taste, hearing, smell, and touch. They are excellent climbers and can run up any rough vertical surface. They will run horizontally along wire cables or ropes and can jump up to 12 inches from the floor onto a flat surface. Mice can squeeze through openings slightly larger than 1/4 inch across. House mice frequently find their way into homes in the fall of the year, when outdoor temperatures at night become colder.

House mice eat many types of food but prefer seeds and grain. Foods high in fat, protein, or sugar may be preferred even when grain and seed also are present. Such items include bacon, chocolate candies, butter and nutmeats. A single mouse eats only about 3 grams of food per day (8 pounds per year) but because of their habit of nibbling on many foods and discarding partially eaten items, mice destroy considerably more food than they consume.

  • House mice consume and contaminate food meant for humans, pets, livestock, or other animals. In addition, they cause considerable damage to structures and property, and they can transmit pathogens that cause diseases such as salmonellosis, a form of food poisoning.
  • Micro droplets of mouse urine can cause allergic in children. Mice can also bring fleas, mites, ticks and lice into your home.
  • Structural Damage: Mice will gnaw upon wall and attic insulation, electrical wiring, and containers of stored human and animal foods. Stored items may also be gnawed upon.

Three elements are necessary for a successful rat management program:
Sanitation measures, building construction and rodent proofing, and, if necessary, population control.

[A] Sanitation:

Sanitation is fundamental to rat control and must be continuous. Sanitation programs must always include both the outside and inside of affected buildings.

  • Outside all rubbish piles must be eliminated.
  • Improper handling of garbage and re use (e.g. improper selection, use and maintenance of industrial dumpsters) may result in a prime source of food and shelter for rodents and thus, attract them to any building.
  • When it is necessary to accumulate food refuse, it must be kept in rodent-proof containers until it is removed from the premise. Industrial dumpsters, for example-especially those used around food-serving establishments-must be carefully selected for proper proper volume, pick up schedule, cleaning, placement, and other factors so as to not attract rodents to the property.
  • Grass, weeds, and other undesirable vegetation adjacent to building should be removed. If the building is landscaped, it should be properly maintained. Over grown landscape planting can provide rodents with both cover and food.
  • Lumber, rock piles, rubbish, old equipment, construction materials etc.., should all be eliminated if possible. Items that must be kept should be stored atleast 18 inches (46 cm) off the ground and 12 inches (31 cm) away from walls or fences.


  • Indoor, al potential rodent harborages must be identified and eliminated or modified. Such areas as obscure corners, shelves, under and in cabinets, worktable, lockers and equipments must not be overlooked or neglected as these dark, out-of-the way areas provide rodents with ideal harborage.
  • Where possible, rodent proofing of these areas as well as stairwells, machinery, double walls, false ceiling and floors, hollow tile partitions and boxed in pipes and conduits may be necessary.
  • In warehouses and storage areas of commercial facilities, products should be on pallets (preferably 8 to 12 inches (20 to 31 cm) off the floor), 18 to 24 inches (46 to 61 cm) from adjacent walls, not stacked more than one to two pallets wide and separated by an aisle.

Around Residence:

  • Homeowners should do proper reuse management, storage practice and the proper feeding of pets and wildlife to attracting rodents to the yard or home.
  • Residential garbage cans must not be overfilled and contain tight-fitting covers.
  • Woodpiles and any other type of outdoor storage should be elevated off the ground to help eliminate potential rat or mouse harborage.


  • Backyard infestation of rats are commonly associated with exterior doghouses, bird and squirrel feeders, improper garbage management, improper composting practice and vegetable gardens and fruit trees that are not properly maintained.

[B] Rodent Proofing (Exclusion):

Ideally, the best way to control mice and rats is to make it impossible for them to gain entry into structures. It can be difficult or impractical to exclude mice completely as even adult mice can pass through opening 3/8-inch 91.0 cm) wide. Furthermore, mice commonly enter building through open doors or windows or are carried into buildings inside merchandise. Nevertheless, it is good pest management for building owners to rodent proof a building as much as possible.

When considering rodent proofing, every possible route of rodent access to the building must be considered. Generally, all opening greater than 1/4 –inch (0.6 cm) should be sealed to exclude mice. For rats, all openings greater than ½-inch (1.3 cm) should be sealed.

  • Points where utility lines penetrate a wall are likely access sites for rodents. The opening around service conduits such as water, electricity, air conditioning, drain pipes, and vents should all be sealed. Sheet metal, hardware cloth and mortar can be used to seal the spaces around these and other types of openings. Copper mesh stuffing and coarse steel wool can be stuffed into gaps and holes, but should be sealed with mortar or the appropriate durable sealant to provide for a long term closing of the holes.
  • Broken basement windows, warped doors and unscreened vents are all invasion routes for mice and rats. Vents should be covered with a metal grill-work, backed by rust-resistant screening.
  • The spaces beneath doors should be checked and, if need be, reduced. A 12-inch (30 cm) sheet metal (26 gauges) kicking plate should be attached to the outside of the door with the lower edge not more than ¼ inches (6 mm) from the floor. The door casing should also be protected with sheet metal to prevent mice and rats from widening cracks by gnawing.
  • Rodent can be deterred from climbing pipes on the outside of buildings by fitting metal guards around the pipes. These should be made of 26-gauge sheet metal, fitted close to the wall at the rear and projecting 12 inches (35 cm) outward form the pipe. An added measure to deter climbing by Norway rats and mice is to apply a 12-inch band of hard glossy paint around the outside of brick or stone walls about 3-1/2 feet above the ground. A 12-inch band of glossy paint around a vertical pipe will also help prevent climbing. These measures however, may not be very effective against roof rats.
  • Roof should be checked to see that shingles are down tight and sheathing is complete. Also check roof ventilators, screen vent and louvered wall vents. Use hardware cloth (1/4-inch width screening) to prevent larger animals from entering through vents. Screen chimneys and vent pipes if they are serving as entryways.

Additional Rodent proofing Tips :

  • Repair or replace damaged ventilation screen around the foundation and under eaves.
  • Provide a tight fitting cover for the crawl space.
  • Seal all openings around pipes, cables, and wires that enter through walls or the foundation.
  • Be sure all windows that can be opened are screened and that the screens are in good condition.
  • Cover all chimneys with a spark arrester.
  • Make sure internal screens on roof and attic air vents are in good repair.
  • Cover rooftop plumbing vent pipes in excess of 2 inches in diameter with screens over their tops.
  • Make sure all exterior doors are tight fitting and weatherproofed at the bottom.
  • Seal gaps beneath garage doors with a gasket or weather-stripping.
  • Install self-closing exits or screening to clothes dryer vents to the outside.
  • Remember that pet doors into the house or garage provide an easy entrance for rodents.
  • Keep side doors to the garage closed, especially at night.

[C] Population Control:

When food, water, and shelter are available, rat populations can reproduce and grow quickly. While the most permanent form of control is to limit food, water, shelter, and access to buildings, direct population control is often necessary.


Pests need food, water, and shelter. Often the problem may be solved just by removing these key items. Before even thinking about chemical pest control, it is important to be aware of Pest’s Conducive conditions & It’s Recommendations.

Pesticides can be purchased in many different forms, each form has specific uses and application methods The pesticide application method you choose depends on the nature and habits of the target pest, the properties of the pesticide, the suitability of the application equipment, and the cost and efficiency of alternative methods. Your choice is often predetermined by one or more of these factors. Follow label directions for volume recommendations and application rates based on the pest to be controlled and utilize appropriate application tips on equipment. , these application methods are for informational purposes only. To know specific applications method/s for the product you buy, please refer actual packages for complete Label Verbiage.

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